Guava is a very popular fruit. It is available throughout the year except during the summer season. Being very hardy, it gives an assured crop even with very little care. Its cost of production is also low because its requirements for fertilizer, irrigation and plant protection are not much. Further its nutritive value is very high. Therefore, it is and ideal fruit for the nutritional security. Owing to its hardy nature, guava is grown successfully in tropical and subtropical regions up to 1500m above mean sea-level. Best quality guavas are obtained where low night temperatures(10`C) prevail during winter season. It tolerates high temperatures and drought conditions in North India during summers. An annual rainfall of about 100cm is sufficient during the rainy season. The rains during harvesting period, however, deteriorate the quality of fruits.
Banana is one of the major and economically important fruit crop of India. Banana occupy 20% area among the total area under crop in India. Banana, basically a tropical crop, grows well in a temperature range of 15ºC-35ºC with relative humidity of 75-85%. It prefers tropical humid lowlands and is grown from the sea level to an elevation of 2000m above. In India this crop is being cultivated in climate ranging from humid tropical to dry mild subtropics through selection of appropriate varieties. Chilling injury occurs at temperature below 12ºC. Four months of monsoon with an average 650-750 mm. rainfall are most important for vigorous vegetative growth of banana. At higher altitudes, banana cultivation is restricted to a few varieties like ‘Hill banana”. In Banana Farming , Soil for banana should have good drainage, adequate fertility and moisture. Saline solid, calcareous soil are not suitable for Banana cultivation. Avoided soil of low laying areas, very sandy & heavy black cotton with ill drainage.
Date Palm Plant
Date palm is a flowering plant species in the palm family, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Dates are also well known for being odorless. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation. Date trees typically reach about 21–23meters in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7cm long, and about an inch (2.5cm) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety. They are very sweet, containing about 75 percent of sugar when dried.
Pomegranate is native to the Middle East and South Asia. It is one of the first five cultivated foods in the world. It is very high in Potassium, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Folic Acid, and antioxidants. Pomegranate is high value crops. Many studies show that Pomegranate is one of the most powerful and the nutrient dense food for overall good health. It is an ideal crop for the sustain ability of small holdings as well as pomegranate is well suited to the topography and agro-climate of arid and semi-arid regions.
Mango(Magnifera Indica) is the king of fruits. India is the world’s largest producer of mangoes. It has been estimated that there are over 1000 commercial varieties in India. Mango trees are deep-rooted, symmetrical evergreens that attain heights of 60 feet and widths of 50 feet. Mango trees have simple alternate lancelet leaves that are 12 to 16 inches in length and yellow-green, purple, or copper in color when young. Mature leaves are leathery, glossy, and deep green in color. New leaves arise in terminal growth flushes that occur several times a year. Mangos can be grown on a wide range of soil types, from light sandy loams to red clay soils. Soil pH of 5.5 to 7.5 is preferred. Deep rich soils give the best production and fruit quality. Well drained soils are recommended.
Custard Apple Plant
Custard Apple is a sweet fruit, which is widely grown across the world. The custard apple is believed to be a native of the West Indies but it was carried in early times through Central America to southern Mexico. In India the tree is cultivated, especially around Calcutta, and runs wild in many areas. The fruit is compound in nature, measuring 3 1/4 to 6 1/2 inches (8-16 cm) in diameter. The shape of the fruit may be symmetrically heart-shaped, lopsided, or irregular. It may be nearly round or oblate, with a deep or shallow depression at the base. The skin or covering of custard apple is thin but tough, which is usually yellow or brownish when ripe. Beneath the thin covering, a thick, cream-white layer of custard like, granular, flesh is present, which surrounds seeds. The flavor of the fruit is sweet and agreeable.
Papaya plant belongs to Caricaceae family of flowering plants. It is native crop of Mexico and was introduced in India in 16th Century. Papayas are an excellent source of vitamin C and one single medium fruit provides 224% of your daily needs. Papaya tree bears many spherical or pear-shaped fruits clumped near its top end. They come in variety of sizes ranging from 6-20 inches in length and 4-12 inches in diameter. Exotic papaya fruit or pawpaw is packed with numerous health benefiting nutrients. The fruit is one of the favorites of fruit lovers for its nutritional, digestive, and medicinal properties. Papaya has become an important agricultural export for developing countries, where export revenues of the fruit provide a livelihood for thousands of people. Papaya exports contribute to the growing supply of healthful food products on international markets.
Sapota, popularly known in India as chiku, is native to tropical America Most probably to south Mexico or Central America. This plant is also grown for its Latex. Chicle and gutta parcha are extracted from its latex. These are used as a base material in chewing gum and in some other industrial products. In India it is cultivated for fruits which are liked all over the country. The fruit is a fleshy berry, variable in shape, size and weight (75-150g). The skin is thin, rusty brown somewhat scurfy looking like Irish potato, and the pulp soft, melting, crumbling with a sandy or granular texture with 1-5 hard, black seeds. The fruit is a good source of digestible sugar (12-18%) and an appreciable source of protein, fat fiber ad minerals, Calcium and Iron. It has become a very popular fruit crop in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
Lemon is most commanly used fruit. The health benefits of lemon include its use as a treatment of throat infections, indigestion, constipation, dental problems, and fever, internal bleeding, rheumatism, burns, obesity, respiratory disorders, cholera and high blood pressure, while it also benefits since generations, lemon helps to strengthen your immune system, cleanse your stomach, and it is considered a blood purifier. Lemon juice, especially, has several health benefits associated with it. It is well known as a useful treatment for kidney stones, reducing strokes and lowering body temperature. As a refreshing drink, lemonade helps you to stay calm and cool.
Drum Stick Plant
Drum Stick also known as Moringa oleifera, is a tropical plant grown for its nutritious leafy-greens, flower buds, and mineral-rich green fruit pods. It possesses horseradish-like root and, hence, known to the western world as horseradish tree. Their young, tender seed pods are popular as murnga in Tamil, and malunggay in Philippines. Moringa is a drought tolerant, medium-sized, evergreen tree that prefers warm, frost-free climates to flourish. Its tender leaves and twigs can be harvested at any time from a well-established, 1.5 to 2 meters tall plant. Taller plants bear cream-white, small size flowers in clusters throughout the season, which subsequently develop into long slender dark-green, three-sided, edible seedpods with tapering ends. Each pod measures about 6-18 inches in length. Inside, each pod features fleshy pulp and round pea-sized seed encased inside a wing-shaped coat (hull).
Apple Ber Plant
Apple Ber is the Urdu name for the fruit of the tree Zizyphus vulgaris, or mauritania or sativa and is called the jujube berry in English. It is also known as the Indian jujube or Chinese date. Apple Ber is a Thailand variety ber. The taste of these ber is very sweet. The weight of each plum is about 100-200gm. It looks similar to green apples. That is why seed is known as apple plum. This kind of plant starts giving fruits after 6 months. It gives fruits twice in a year. Plums are produced mainly December to January. This tree gives 25-30kg fruits during first year and in the second year itgives 40-45kg fruits. It is a new variety fruit in the present market and it is attractive too. In big cities of India these fruits can be sold.
Dragon Fruit Plant
Dragon fruit is native to the Central America. It is one of the first five cultivated foods in the world.Dragon fruits have a surprising number of phytonutrients. Rich in antioxidants, they containvitamin C (equivalent to 10 percent of the daily value), polyunsaturated (good) fatty acids, and several B vitamins for carbohydrate metabolism, as well as carotene and protein.. Dragon fruit is high value crops. Many studies show that Dragon fruit is one of the most powerful and the nutrient dense food for overall good health. It starts flowering after 18 months to 24 months, after 10 to 12 months of flowering, fruits are mature for harvesting.